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What Do Parrots Eat? – Ask A Bird Vet

What Do Parrots Eat

Reviewed by Carol Dunham

Seasoned Pet owner and enthusiast, Content Reviewer at

Parrots are intelligent, social birds that make fun and affectionate pets. However, caring for their nutritional needs can be complex. Parrots have evolved to eat a diverse diet, and providing proper nutrition is key to keeping captive parrots healthy and happy. So what do parrots eat? Both wild and captive parrots require a balanced diet with plenty of variety. Ask a Bird Vet to get the answers instantly.

Natural Diets of Parrots in the Wild

In their natural habitats in the tropics and sub-tropics, parrots eat a varied diet consisting mainly of:

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Parrots enjoy many types of fruits including berries, melons, citrus fruits, figs, and apples. The natural sugars in fruit provide parrots with carbohydrates for energy.


Green leafy vegetables as well as root vegetables and sprouts provide parrots with nutrients like vitamin A, vitamin K, and calcium.

Nuts and Seeds

Nuts and seeds give parrots protein and healthy fats. Parrots use their strong beaks to crack open hard nuts and seeds.

Insects and Larvae

Many parrots supplement their diets with insects like beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers, and grubs. Insects provide protein and fat.


Lories, lorikeets, and hanging parrots have specialized brush-like tongues for drinking the nectar from flowers. Nectar offers carbohydrates.

Captive Parrot Diets

Parrot Diets

Caring for parrots kept as pets or in zoos requires carefully controlling their diet. Here are some key components to meet captive parrots’ nutritional requirements.

Basic Diet Components

  • Pellets: Parrot pellets provide balanced nutrition in an easy-to-eat formulation. Pellets should make up 50-75% of a parrot’s diet.
  • Seeds: Parrots enjoy seeds, though seeds are higher in fat so only 10-15% of the diet should consist of seeds.
  • Fruits and Veggies: A variety of fresh produce provides vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and beneficial phytonutrients.
  • Whole Grains: Whole grains like quinoa, brown rice, barley, and oats give carbohydrates for energy.
  • Legumes: Beans, lentils, chickpeas, and peas offer protein.
  • Leafy Greens: Kale, spinach, Swiss chard, mustard greens, and many other greens supply nutrients.


  • Vitamin supplements: Parrots may need supplements of vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K.
  • Mineral supplements: Calcium, iron, and zinc supplements help meet needs.
  • Amino acid supplements: Some parrots benefit from lysine and methionine supplements.
  • Calcium supplements: Extra calcium supports bone health and eggshell formation.

Avoiding Unhealthy Foods

Some human foods are toxic for parrots and should be avoided:

  • Chocolate: Theobromine in chocolate can cause toxicity.
  • Avocado: Persin, a fungicidal toxin, can damage bird hearts.
  • Caffeine: Caffeine negatively affects parrots’ nervous systems.
  • Alcohol: Alcohol is highly toxic causing central nervous system depression.
  • Dairy: Lactose intolerant parrots get diarrhea from milk products.
  • Salt: Excess sodium is unhealthy.
  • Sugar: Too much sugar causes obesity and metabolic disorders.

Meal Plans for Different Parrot Species

Diet plans can be adjusted to meet the specialized needs of various parrot species:

  • Lories and lorikeets – More nectar-based foods.
  • Cockatoos – Lower fat seeds like sunflower or safflower seeds.
  • Parakeets – Fortified pellets and veggies high in vitamin A like carrots.
  • Macaws – Balanced diet with plenty of nuts and fruits. More vitamin D.
  • Parrotlets – Small portions more frequently. Soft pellets easier to eat.
  • Amazons – Larger portions due to bigger size. Enriched pellets for condition.
  • African greys – Calcium-fortified pellets and veggies for bone health. Low iron.
  • Cockatiels – Higher vitamin A for breeding birds. Calcium for eggs.
  • Conures – Fruits, veggies, greens, pellets. Limit fattier foods.
  • Eclectus – More fruits and vegetables. Red eclectus need more vitamin A.
  • Quaker parrots – Fortified pellets. Chopped veggies. Low-fat seeds.
  • Hawk-headed parrots – Insect matter like mealworms. Calcium for breeding.
  • Pionus parrots – Varied diet with veggies, sprouted seeds, and pellets.

Feeding Techniques

  • Pellets and chop: Mix pellets with chopped fruits and veggies. Promotes foraging.
  • Foraging toys and tasks: Makes getting food entertaining and challenging.
  • Controlled treats: Healthy treats for training. Monitor quantity.

Ensuring a Balanced Diet

a green parrot eating a piece of fruit

To keep parrots healthy, their diet must meet certain nutritional requirements.

Key Nutrients

  • Protein for muscle, organs, and feathers. 10-15% of diet.
  • Fats and fatty acids for skin, beak, and brain health. 5-10% of diet.
  • Carbohydrates for energy. Should be 55-65% of diet.
  • Vitamins and minerals for biological processes. A, B, C, D, E, K, calcium, etc.
  • Water for hydration and biochemical functions. Fresh and clean.

Signs of Malnutrition

Look for these signs that diet may be deficient:

  • Poor feather quality – Can signal protein or micronutrient deficiency.
  • Lethargy and weakness – Indicates insufficient calories or inadequate nutrition.
  • Increased susceptibility to illness – Nutrition impacts immune health.
  • Nutrient deficiency diseases – E.g. hypovitaminosis A, rickets, etc.

Working with an Avian Vet

Consult an avian vet to support nutrition:

  • Annual wellness exams allow evaluation of diet and health.
  • Discussion of diet and any concerns about nutrition.
  • Testing blood for nutritional deficiencies or toxicities.

Get Expert Bird and Parrot Nutrition Advice Online

Understanding proper parrot nutrition can be complicated for pet owners. Getting personalized advice from avian veterinarians can be invaluable but may not always be convenient or affordable. This is where online bird vet services like Easy Vet Answers offers a great solution.

We provide real-time access to verified avian vets who can answer your questions about parrot diet and nutrition via phone or online. You can get specific guidance tailored to your own parrot’s needs from the comfort of your home.

With Easy Vet Answers, you can:

  • Get answers to your pressing questions within minutes from qualified avian vets.
  • Receive individualized diet recommendations for your unique parrot.
  • Upload pictures or lab results to get an avian vet’s insight.
  • Follow up with additional questions for clarification at no extra charge.
  • Get support affordably without an office visit.
  • Communicate conveniently via your preferred method.

For top-notch advice from avian medicine experts about exactly what to feed your parrot, Easy Vet Answers is a great go-to resource. Connect with a licensed and experienced bird vet today to ensure your parrot’s dietary needs are met.



Parrots thrive on a varied diet high in nutrients and low in fat and sugars. Provide a quality pellet mix combined with fruits, vegetables, sprouted seeds, whole grains, and limited treats. Avoid toxic human foods. Different species have some unique needs. Work with a knowledgeable avian vet to ensure your parrot’s diet supports excellent health. Proper nutrition helps parrots live long, vibrant lives.

What Do Parrots Eat? Frequently Asked Questions

How often should I feed my parrot?

Most parrots do best with multiple small meals throughout the day. Remove uneaten fresh foods within a few hours.

How do I transition my parrot to a new diet?

Gradually mix in new foods over 2-3 weeks. Watch for decreased appetite or loose droppings. Slow down if needed.

What are the best fruits and veggies for parrots?

Recommended produce includes berries, melons, apples, oranges, pomegranates, kale, carrots, sweet potatoes, peppers, squash, green beans, and broccoli.

Is it okay for my parrot to eat human food?

Parrots should not eat most human food due to salt, sugar, and fat content. Stick to their specialized diet for optimal nutrition.

How do I know if my parrot is getting proper nutrition?

Observe eating habits, droppings, activity levels, and feather condition. Have an avian vet examine your parrot annually.

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